For Apple's implementation of two-factor authentication requires a trusted device. This, currently, can be either an iPhone, iPad, iPod touch (iOS 9+), or a Mac running OS X El Capitan or later. This is where the verification code will be sent to.
However, two-factor authentication can also work with a trusted phone number to a device that can receive either text messages or phone calls. This, I believe, can be a non-Apple device.
Mac OS X (SSO Client included) WINDOWS COMPUTER (SSO Client included) Mac OS X Connector Lite (SSO Client). The key differences between Google Authenticator and SAASPASS Authenticator: SAASPASS encrypts all data, whereas Google Authenticator stores keys in plain/clear text; this is a problem especially with rooted devices and backup programs. Use two-factor authentication for security on your Mac, iOS devices, and iPadOS devices. Two-factor authentication is an extra layer of security for your Apple ID designed to ensure that you’re the only one who can access your account—even if someone knows your password. See the Apple Support article Two-factor authentication for Apple ID. Enter to Search. Google authenticator. LastPass Authenticator is a two-factor authentication app for your LastPass account and other supported apps.
Authenticator Google App
AFAIK, there isn't an Android app that can generate an Apple ID verification code.
Google Authenticator For Windows
Ref: I want to sign in on my android phone? - ASC
Google Authenticator App For Mac
Mar 30, 2017 2:14 PM